the great divide pagan factor

Shi’ah – Sunni

The Shi‘ah do not consider the narrations in Bukhari to be authentic, and argue that if things such as Ziyarah and Tawassul were innovations and shirk, Muhammad himself would have prohibited people as a precaution, from visiting graves, or seeking blessings through kissing the sacred black stone at the Ka‘bah.

Some Sunni scholars such as Ibn Taymiyyah, have also rejected the notion that such things are innovations (bid’ah).

Sufism and paganism

  • Pagan influence
  • Mysticism
  • Miracles and music

West Asia & Paganism

  • Mecca
  • Tribals

Sufism and Idol worship

  • Dargah
  • Peer
  • Chadar

Sufi saints

  • An array of saints
  • Woman saints
  • scholar and theologian Ibn Taymiyya condemned walis (saints)
  • Enemy of Sufism was Mohamed ibn ‘Abdel-Wahab, the puritanical founder of the Wahhabi movement, Saudi Arabia

Sufi debate

  • European sufism
  • West asian sufism
  • Asian Sufism
  • American Sufism

Sufism and Politics by Paul L. Heck
Sufism is often overlooked when it comes to scholarly consideration of the politics of the Muslim world. This is partly due to the difficulty of defining Sufism, which is both spiritual outlook and social institution. Both aspects, however, have been important factors in the variegated involvement of Sufism in the politics of Muslim society, past and present alike.

The political dimension of Sufism across culture and history and to offer new horizons for scholarly reflection on the socio-political role played by Sufism in both pre-modern and modern Muslim society. Sufism has been an active player in defining the societal nature of Islam, no less than its theological nature, and this volume underscores the way in which Sufism has played that role while adapting itself to changing political conditions.

Issues include charismatic authority and institutional interests, the moral good and the state (both patrimonial and national); patronage, power, and the competitive politics of sainthood; theological assessments of the value of the world, justice, and conceptions of civil society as seen through the eyes of Sufism. This volume casts further light on an important and influential side of the ongoing debate within Islam over the purposes of politics alongside its realities. Sufism and Politics


Sufi places of worship

Sufi places of worship
Different Muslim-majority countries, speaking different languages, use different words for these sites.

* Ziyaratgaah — Persian word meaning, “sites of Ziyarat”

* Imamzadeh — in Iran, tombs of the “descendants of Shi‘ah Imams”

* Dargah (?????, ?????) — in South Asia, Iran and Central Asia, tombs of Sufi saints

* Ziyaratkhana — in South Asia (less common)

* Derga or Ziyaret — in Turkey

* Khwaja ‘Abd Allah Ansari shrine, Gazargah

* The Rawze-e-Sharif (Blue Mosque), said to be the grave of Ali ibn Abi Talib; Mazar-i-Sharif

* Khwaja Abu Nasr Parsa shrine, Balkh

* Baba Hatim Ziyarat, Emam Sahib
* The historic Blue Mosque in Mazar-e-Sharif


* Othmania Zawia, traditional zaouia established in memory of a saint; Tolga

* Sidi Okba, Tomb of Sidi Okba bin Nafei, the great muslim Commander of Umayyad Forces; Biskra


* Dargah of Hazrat Shah Jalal, the Dargah (tomb) and Masjid (mosque) of the Turkish Sufi saint Hazrat Shah Jalal; Sylhet

China (People’s Republic of)

* Qilghili Keldim of Uighuristan
Six of twelve, Twelver Shi‘ah Imams are buried in Iraq:

Image:Meshed ali usnavy (PD).jpg|Imam `Ali Mosque
Tomb of:
*`Ali ibn Abi Talib
(First Shi‘ah Imam)
*Adam (Shi‘ah belief)
*Noah (Shi‘ah belief)
( Najaf )
Image:Kerbela Hussein Moschee.jpg|Imam Husayn Mosque
Tomb of:
*Husayn ibn ‘Ali
(Third, Twelver Imam)
*‘Ali Akbar ibn Husayn
*‘Ali Asghar ibn Husayn
*Habib ibn Madhahir

The Ziyarat sites in India are owned and maintained by the waqf Boards of the respective states in which they are located.

* Hazrath Adam(A) landed from paradise to Adam mountain-(Boudh hill)-Sri Lanka-it is nearer to south India.

* Dargah (shrine) of Adam(A)&Hawwa beevi, Mannar-Srilanka-Near to South India

* Dargah (shrine) of Habeel ibn-Adam(A), Rameswaram-Chennai-Tamilnadu

* Dargah (shrine) of Prophet Nooh(A), Manik parvath(Al-joodi hill), Fiazabad, Utter Pradesh

* Dargah (shrine) of Prophet Shees(A), Son of Adam(A), (Al-joodi hill), Fiazabad, Utter Pradesh

* Dargah (shrine) of Prophet Davood(A), (Al-joodi hill), Fiazabad, Utter Pradesh

* Dargahs (shrines) of 40 prophets chalees Ambiya, Baros-Punjab-It revealed by Imam Rabbani

* Imam Rabbani Mujaddid Alfussani(R), Sirhind, Punjab

* Muhammed Maasoom(R), Sirhind, Punjab

* Muhammed Saifudheen(R), Sirhind, Punjab

* Noor Muhammed Badhayooni(R), Delhi

* Muhammed Baqi Billah(R), Delhi

* Shah Valiyullah Dahlavi(R), Delhi

* Khwaja Qutbuddin Bakhtyar Kaki’s shrine near Delhi

* Ali Hamadani(R), Charare-Shereef, Kashmir

* Dargah (shrine) of Ahmed Rida Khan, Bareilly

* Dargah of Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia, Delhi

* Tomb of Amir Khusro, Delhi

* Dargah of Khwaja Sahib, or Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, in Ajmer, Rajasthan

* Dargah of Hussain Tekri in Jaora, Madhya Pradesh

* Hazratbal shrine in Srinagar district, Jammu and Kashmir

* Dargah of Salim Chishti, at Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh

* Dargah of Syed Ashraf Jahanghir Semnani, at Kichochashareef, Uttar Pradesh

* Mirsa jan jan& Abdullah janjanbade navas-gulburg

* Hazarath Syed Kareemulla Shah Khadari, Kasmur, Nellore Dist, Andhra Pradesh

* Sheikh Jamaluddin Qutb’s shrine in Haryana

* Shrine of Ibrahim, Bhadreswar, Gujarat

* Jamaludheen Jana, Gujarat

* Valley of Saints, shrines of several Sufi saints and the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Khuldabad, Maharashtra.

* Darghah of Haji Ali, Mumbai

* Dargah of Makhdoom Ali Mahimi, at Mahim in Mumbai

* Nath-har Ali Badhshah(R), Trichi-Trinapalli, Tamilnadu

* Tameemul Ansari(R), Chennai, Tamilnadu

* Ukkasha(R), Tamilnadu

* Dargah of Nagore, in Tamil Nadu we recommend you to visit

* Hazrath Haja Sheikh Alavudeen(RA),Paapavoor,Tamilnadu

* Darghah of Sulthan Ibraheem Badushah, [[[Ervadi,, Tamilnadu]]

* Hazrath Hameed Aulia(RA),Kanchipuram,Tamilnadu

* Hazrath Usmaan Aulia(RA),Kanchipuram,Tamilnadu

* Hazrath Syed Moosa Sha Qadiri(RA), Dargah chennai, Tamilnadu

* Dargah of Hazarath Tawakkal Mastan, Bangalore, Karnataka

* Bababudangiri shrine, Chickmagalur, Karnataka

* Darghah of Tippu Sultan(R), Mysore, Karnataka

* Sayyid Muhammed Madani(R), Mangloor, Karnataka

* Sayyid Alavi Mouladdhaveela-MAMBURAM, Malabar, Kerala

* Muhammed Ibn-Alavudheen, Ediyangara, Calicut-Kerala

* Quthubul Aalam Muhammed Abeebacker(R), Madavoor-Calicut, Kerala

* qutubul qadriyya shiekh kamaludheen EK umrar haji al qadri, calicut, kerala

* shiekh jamaludheen EK ahmad haji al qadri muttichoor, thrisur, kerala

* shiekh shaheed aliyul bakari parambil (ra), calicut, kerala

* shiekh ashiq-u-rrasool kundoor abdul qadr musliar al qadri(ra), malappuram, kerala

* qutubul qadriyya shiekh saeed sirajudheen al qadri ailakkad(ra), malappuram, kerala

* kaniyamburam abdurrazak masthan (Ra), kerala

* Malik Ibn Habeeb, Kasargod, Kerala

* Shiekh Abdu Rahiman Naqshbandhi-Khalidi, Tanoor, Kerala

* Shiekh Muhammed Bappu Khalidi-Shaduli, Machingappara-Tirur, Kerala

* Raffi Rifayya-Old Masjid, Calicut, Kerala

* Zainudheen Maqdoom(R)-1, Ponnani, Kerala

* Zainudheen Maqdoom(R)-2, Mini Palli, Shompal

* Abdul Qader Sani-Suharwardhi,, Purathiyil-Kannur, Kerala

* Muhammed Moula- Buqari, Kannur, Kerala

* Sheikh Muhammed Haji Thangal Shaduli, Vadakara-Calicut, Kerala

* Faqeer Shah Baba Qadri Gwalior, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

* Pallipadi Auliya, Ernakulam, Kerala

* Sayyid Hamid Thangal Rifai, Kalamassery, Kerala

* Hazar Deewane- shah kapasan, m.p.

* Sayyid Moulal Bhukhari – Kannur City, Kannur, Kerala

* Valiyullahi (R) – Muttil Juma Masjid, Muttil, Kannur, Kerala

* Valiyullahi (R) – Oliyankara Juma Masjid, Cherukunnu, Kannur, Kerala

* Valiyullahi C M Abubacker Musliyaar (R) – Madavoor, Malabar, Kerala

* Umar Qazhi (R) – Veliyankode, Malabar, Kerala

* Tamim ul Dari (R), Parapalli, Calicut, Kerala

* Hazrat Shah Noor Jamal(RA),Hoshiarpur


* The tombs of the Wali Sanga

* Tomb of Tuan Guru Syeikh Abdurrahman Siddiq, Riau – frequented by Malays from Indonesia and Malaysia
Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization lists several hundred “ziyarat-gah” or places of pilgrimage in which a sage, Sufi, Imamzadeh, or Imam were buried in Iran. Some of the more popular ones include:

* Shrine of Bayazid Bistami, Bistam

* Darb-i Imam shrine, Isfahan

* Davazdeh Imam shrine, Yazd

* Fatimah al-Ma’sumah Mosque, Qum

* Friday Mosque of Shiraz, Shiraz